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ce'u: what is it and how does one use it? If you would not mind.

>> No.197  

ce'u is used for ka abstractors:

{lo ka barda} == {lo ka ce'u barda} (if no ce'u is spoken, it defaults to the x1 place) == "the property of being big"

AFAIK you can bury the ce'u deep down there somewhere to express more complicated characteristics, like {lo ka lo gerku pe ce'u cu crino} == "the property of being associated with the dog that is green"/"having a green dog"

>> No.198  

ce'u is a pronoun ("pro-sumti") and it marks the place in a property (ka) where the thing with the property goes.

ti ckaji lo ka ce'u dunda
This has the property of being a giver.

ta cjaki lo ka dunda ce'u
That has the property of being given.

tu ckaji lo ka mi dunda ti ce'u
That one over there has the property that I give this to them.

ti zmadu ta lo ka ce'u barda
This is more than that in their being big.

ti mintu ta lo ka mi dunda ce'u makau
This is the same as that in who I give it to.

mi frica do lo ka ce'u citka xokau plise
I differ from you in how many apples each of us eats.

>> No.199  


Okay, that makes sense. So it operates as [ke'a] does if left out?

Also, when does one use the different abstractors? I just do not get it. Are there more than just [nu], [du'u], [sedu'u], and [ka]? When are they (the ones tha I did not list) used?

Thank you for helping me understand [ce'u]. I also learned that Lojban words should be put in brackets if used in English texts, [.ui] so now I am doing that.

>> No.200  

They are in the NU set of cmavo. I will list them here. Using them makes your meaning more specific and precise.

Selma'o {NU} with member cmavo:
du'u - abstractor: predication/bridi abstractor; x1 is predication [bridi] expressed in sentence x2
jei - abstractor: truth-value abstractor; x1 is truth value of [bridi] under epistemology x2
ka - abstractor: property/quality abstractor (-ness); x1 is quality/property exhibited by [bridi]
li'i - abstractor: experience abstractor; x1 is x2's experience of [bridi] (participant or observer)
mu'e - abstractor: achievement (event) abstractor; x1 is the event-as-a-point/achievement of [bridi]
ni - abstractor: quantity/amount abstractor; x1 is quantity/amount of [bridi] measured on scale x2
nu - abstractor: generalized event abstractor; x1 is state/process/achievement/activity of [bridi]
pu'u - abstractor: process (event) abstractor; x1 is process of [bridi] proceeding in stages x2
si'o - abstractor: idea/concept abstractor; x1 is x2's concept of [bridi]
su'u - abstractor: generalized abstractor (how); x1 is [bridi] as a non-specific abstraction of type x2
za'i - abstractor: state (event) abstractor; x1 is continuous state of [bridi] being true
zu'o - abstractor: activity (event) abstractor; x1 is abstract activity of [bridi] composed of x2

You can bring up a list of any type of cmavo using Sutfak. I am not sure about other methods.

>> No.201  

Also, perhaps reading the following chapter would clear it up for you quite concisely: http://jbotcan.org/cllc/c11/s1.html

>> No.202  

Typically one uses {braces like this}.

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