toki pona enhanced

toki pona enhanced, one of the unoffical symbols
toki pona enhanced, one of the unoffical symbols
toki pona enhanced (aka TPE) is a dialect of toki pona that formalizes the syntax and the lexicon of toki pona employing advances in the science of Lojban.

Basic sentence structure

Main TPE words are verbs like
to be an animal (e.g. a dog or a cat)
to eat (something)
soweli li moku
A mouse eats.
The verb before the particle becomes a noun. The verb after remains a verb.
TPE also have words that act only as nouns. Those are pronouns:
Thus they don't require to separate them from the forthcoming verb:
mi moku
I eat

Two nouns of a verb

Verb can have more than one noun:
mi moku e ijo
I eat something.
I eat food.
to eat (something)
The second noun is put after the verb and separated with the particle .

Compound verbs

to talk, say (something)
to be good, to repair (something)
toki pona
to talk in a good way
toki pona li moku
A good talker eats.
Stringing verbs together makes the second, third etc. verbs modify the first verb. Thus we get adjectives that unlike English is put afterwards: literally in TPE we say "talker, the good, eats."
Pronouns can also modify verbs:
to be an animal (e.g. cat)
soweli mi
to be my animal
ni li soweli mi
This is my cat.
ona li soweli sina
It is your cat.

Modal verbs

Some verbs can be used as modal verbs (auxiliary verbs):
mi wile toki
I want to talk.
modal verb: to want to ...
Compound verb rule is applied to them. However, some modal verbs can function as verbs, in this case the rule with "e" is applied.


mi moku ala
I don't eat.
to be false, not
To negate a verb you put "ala" after it thus getting a compound verb.


The question verb is used for asking content questions:
seme li moku
Who eats?
Sentences with questions usually have a raising intonation.
sina moku ala moku
Do you eat?
I do (eat).
moku ala
I don't (eat).
To ask yes/no questions repeat the verb twice with the word inside. To answer yes repeat that verb. To answer no repeat the verb with  after it.


Pre-nouns work the same as modal verbs but make the next word a noun:
mi kepeken ijo
I use a tool.
modal verb: to use ...
is a tool (like fork, knife ...)

Topic and comment

Common sentence has two parts: topic and comment, which are separated by the particle :
soweli li moku la ona li kepeken ijo
A mouse eats using a fork (actual meaning)
he, she, they, it
Topic is before , comment is after .
is used to express prepositions. In this case the preposition "with" is rephrased in TPE with the modal verb .
can also be used to express conditions like "if" and "when". This sentence can also be translated as "If a mouse eats it uses a fork."


soweli li moku la ona li kepeken ijo
A mouse eats using a fork (actual meaning)
Anaphoric verb refers to the previous noun known from context. In this isolated example it definitely refers to the noun since there are no other nouns before "ona".

Separating sentences

Sentences are separated by lowering the intonation till the end of the sentence and putting an at least short pause after them.
Question sentences are separated by raising the intonation till the end of the sentence and putting an at least short pause after them.
In writing sentence is separated by a dot placed at the end of it.

Linking sentences together

mi moku. en la mi tawa
to go, to move (to some place)
If you want to show that two sentences express the same idea use to connect them.
mi moku. sin la kon li seli
to be hot, to burn (something)
to be new
If you change the subject of what you are talking about start the next sentence with to show it belongs to a new subject. In books "sin la" is also used to separate paragraphs.

Metaphorical usage of prepositions

The verb to say actually requires three nouns:
I say this to you.
to say (something)
specifies only the first two nouns. In such cases metaphors are used. In english to is used. TPE is similar in this regard. It uses :
mi tawa sina la mi toki e ni
I say this to you.
to go to (some place), to be oriented towards (something or someone)

Differences from toki pona

In toki pona language as a noun can mean both "eater" ("the one who eats") and "food". in TPE it means onle "eater". For the second meaning you say:
mi moku e ijo. ona li pona
I eat something. It (i.e. food) is good.


TPE wordclasstranslationtranslation with "e"as modal verbas pre-noun
a, kin[interjection](emphasis, emotion or confirmation)   
akesi[verb]is a non-cute animal (e.g. reptile, amphibian)   
ala[verb]to be false, is not   
alasa[verb]to be a hunterto hunt, forage (something)  
ale, ali[verb]to represent all of them or each of them; is in abundance, is countless, bountiful, plentiful   
anpa[verb]to bow down, to be downwards, to be humble, low, dependent   
ante[verb]is different, altered, changed; other   
anu[verb]to present either option; or   
awen[verb]is enduring, kept, protected, safe, waiting, staying to continue to 
e[particle](before the second noun of a verb)   
en[verb]is a union, is connected; and   
esun[verb]is a market, shop, fair, bazaar, business transaction   
ijo[verb]is a thing, phenomenon, object, matter   
ike[verb]is bad, non-essential, irrelevant   
ilo[verb]is a tool, implement, machine, device   
insa[verb]is a center, content, the inside, is between, is an internal organ, stomach   
jaki[verb]is disgusting, obscene, sickly, toxic, unclean, unsanitary   
jan[verb]is a human being, person, somebody   
jelo[verb]is yellow, yellowish   
jo[verb]to have, carry, contain, hold   
kala[verb]is a fish, marine animal, sea creature   
kalama[verb]to produce a sound; recite; utter aloud   
kama[verb]to arrive, come, is in futureto arrive to, come to (place)to become, manage to, succeed in 
kasi[verb]is a plant, vegetation, herb, leaf   
ken[verb]to be possible to be able to, be allowed to, can, may 
kepeken[verb]to use, is a user  to use (something); with, by means of (something)
kili[verb]is a fruit, vegetable, mushroom   
kiwen[verb]is a rock, stone, metal, hard object   
ko[verb]is a clay, clinging form, dough, semi-solid, paste, powder   
kon[verb]is an air, to breath, is the essence, spirit, is a hidden reality, unseen agent   
kule[verb]is colorful, pigmented, painted   
kulupu[verb]is a community, company, group, nation, society, tribe   
kute[verb]is an ear, to hear, listen, to pay attention to, obey   
la[particle](between the topic and comment)   
lape[verb]to sleep, to rest   
laso[verb]is blue, green   
lawa[verb]is a head, to represent a mind   
lawa[verb]to control, direct, guide, lead, own, plan, regulate, rule   
len[verb]is a cloth, clothing, fabric, textile, cover, layer of privacy   
lete[verb]is cold, cool, uncooked, raw   
li[particle]between any first noun except mi alone or sina alone and its verb; also used to introduce a new verb for the same first noun   
lili[verb]is little, small, short, to represent a small number; few, a bit, young   
linja[verb]is long and flexible thing, is a line, cord, hair, rope, thread, yarn   
lipu[verb]is a flat object, book, document, card, paper, record, website   
loje[verb]is red, reddish   
lon[verb]is located at, is present at, is real, true, existing   
luka[verb]arm, hand, tactile organ   
lukin[verb]to look, see, examine, observe, read, watchto look at, to see, examine, observe, read, watch (something)to seek, look for, try to 
lupa[verb]is a door, hole, orifice, window   
ma[verb]is an earth, land, outdoors, world, country, territory, soil   
mama[verb]is a parent, ancestor, creator, originator, caretakes, sustainer   
mani[verb]is some money, cash, savings, wealth, large domesticated animal   
meli[verb]is a woman, female, feminine person, wife   
mi[pronoun]I; me, we, us   
mije[verb]is a man, male, masculine person, husband   
moku[verb]to eat, drink, consume, swallow, ingest   
moli[verb]is dead, to die   
monsi[verb]is back, behind, rear   
mu[interjection](animal noise or communication)   
mun[verb]is a moon, night sky object, star   
musi[verb]is artistic, entertaining, frivolous, playful, recreational   
mute[verb]to represent a large number; many, a lot, more, several, very   
nanpa[particle]_-th (ordinal number)   
nanpa[verb]is a number, to represent some quantity   
nasa[verb]is unusual, strange, foolish, crazy, drunk, intoxicated   
nasin[verb]is a way, custom, doctrine, method, path, road   
nena[verb]is a bump, button, hill, mountain, nose, protuberance   
ni[verb]is that, this (object or event)   
nimi[verb]is a name, word   
noka[verb]is a foot, leg, organ of locomotion; bottom, lower part   
o[interjection]hey! O! (vocative or imperative marker)   
oko[verb]is an eye   
olin[verb]to loveto love, have compassion for, respect, show affection to (someone or something)  
ona[verb]is he, she, it, they   
open[verb]to begin, start, opento begin, start, open, turn on (something)  
pakala[verb]is botched, broken, damaged, harmed, messed up   
pali[verb]to do, take action on, work on, build, make, prepare (something)to do (some event)  
palisa[verb]is a long hard thing, branch, rod, stick   
pan[verb]is a cereal, grain; barley, corn, oat, rice, wheat; bread, pasta   
pana[verb]to give, send, emit, provide, put, releaseto give, send, emit, provide, put, release (something)  
pilin[verb]is a heart (physical or emotional)to feel (something; an emotion, a direct experience)  
pimeja[verb]is black, dark, unlit   
pini[verb]is in past, is completed, ended, finished   
pipi[verb]is a bug, insect, ant, spider   
poka[verb]is a hip, side, nearbyto be next to (something)  
poki[verb]is a container, bag, bowl, cup, cupboard, drawer, vessel   
pona[verb]is good, positive, useful, friendly, peaceful, simpleto repair (something)  
pu[verb]to interact with the official Toki Pona book   
sama[verb]is the same, similar, is a sibling, peer, fellow; each otheris the same as (something)  
seli[verb]is a fire, is a cooking element, chemical reaction, heat source   
selo[verb]is an outer form, outer layer, bark, peel, shell, skin, boundaryis an outer part of (something)  
seme[verb]is what? is which?   
sewi[verb]is an area above, highest part, something elevated, is awe-inspiring, divine, sacred, supernaturalis an area above (something)  
sijelo[verb]is a body (of person or animal), physical state, torso   
sike[verb]is round or circular thing, ball, circle, cycle, sphere, wheel, one year long   
sin[verb]is new, fresh, additional, another, extra   
namako[verb]is special, gist, new, fresh, woman as a special thing, to have umami taste   
sinpin[verb]is a face, foremost, front, wall   
sitelen[verb]is an image, picture, representation, symbol, markis an image, picture, representation, symbol, mark of (something)  
sona[verb]to knowto be skilled in, be wise about, have information on (something)to know how to 
soweli[verb]is an animal, beast, land mammal   
suli[verb]is big, heavy, large, tall, important; adult   
suno[verb]is the sun, light, bright, is a glow, radiance, shine, light source   
supa[verb]is a horizontal surface, thing to put or rest something on   
suwi[verb]is sweet, fragrant, cute, innocent, adorable   
tan[verb]to be the reason or sourceto be the reason or source of (something)  
taso[verb]to contradict; but, however, onlyto contradict (something)  
tawa[verb]to go, move, be oriented  to go to, to move to, to be oriented towards (something)
telo[verb]is a water, liquid, fluid, wet substance, beverage   
tenpo[verb]is the time, duration, moment, occasion, period, situation   
toki[verb]to say, speak, talk (something), to communicate, use language, thinkto say (something)  
tomo[verb]is an indoor space, building, home, house, room   
tu[verb]is a pair   
unpa[verb]to have sexual or marital relationsto have sexual or marital relations with (someone)  
uta[verb]is a mouth, lips, oral cavity, jaw   
utala[verb]to battle, challenge, compete against, struggle againstto battle, challenge, compete against, struggle against (something)  
walo[verb]is white, whitish, light-colored, pale   
wan[verb]is unique, united   
waso[verb]is a bird, flying creature, winged animal   
wawa[verb]is strong, powerful, confident, sure, energetic, intense   
weka[verb]is absent, away, ignored   
wile[verb]must, need, require, should, want, wish must, need, require, should, want, wish to do (something)